Removal of T cells by various methods in different lupus prone mouse models including the MRL/lpr model results in decreased IgG production, decreased nephritis and increased/prolonged survival [31C35]. exhibited significantly decreased TCR-specific activation during early disease compared to T cells. Moreover, the T cells expressed significantly less neuraminidase 1 (T cells. FLI1 dose-dependently activated the promoter in mouse and human T cell lines. Together, our results suggest reducing FLI1 in lupus decreases the pathogenicity of T cells by decreasing TCR-specific activation and IL-4 production in part through the modulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Reducing the expression of FLI1 or targeting the glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway in lupus may serve as a therapeutic approach to treating lupus. Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by widespread inflammation, autoantibody production, and immune complex deposition. SLE affects nearly every organ system in the body. The underlying cause of SLE is RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides not known but abnormalities in both B and T cells are thought to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance, production of autoantibodies, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidneys and other target tissues. In SLE, B cells demonstrate deregulated cell signaling leading to increased B cell activation and disturbed B cell homeostasis [1C3]. T cells in SLE show aberrant cell signaling, altered gene expression and cytokine production, and increased infiltration into tissues (Examined in ). Efforts to improve SLE treatment therapies are ongoing but are limited by the lack of understanding of SLE pathogenesis and the specific alterations that occur in the cell types involved. Friend leukemia computer virus integration 1 (FLI1), an ETS family transcription factor, plays a role in SLE disease progression as exhibited in two different lupus mouse models [5,6]. FLI1 is required for embryogenesis and is expressed in the adult thymus, heart, muscle mass, spleen, lung, and ovary . In the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides immune system, FLI1 is usually expressed in immature and mature B cells and throughout T cell development [8C12]. Global overexpression of FLI1 in normally healthy mice resulted in development of a lupus-like kidney disease and growth of autoreactive T cells , suggesting a role for FLI1 in lupus disease development/progression. Genetic reduction of FLI1 expression by 50% (T cells from MRL/lpr mice decreases immunoglobulin production by co-transferred or MRL/lpr B cells. We present data that these effects may be due in part to decreased TCR-specific activation, decreased IL-4 production and altered glycosphingolipid metabolism in the T cells. These novel observations provide important mechanistic insight into the impact of FLI1 levels on RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides lupus T cell function and progression of disease. Materials and Methods Ethics statement and mouse strains All animal experiments and methods of euthanasia were approved by the Ralph H. Johnson VAMC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Mice were housed and managed under pathogen-free conditions at the Ralph H. Johnson RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides VAMC Animal Care Facility (Charleston, SC). B6.129S7-Rag1 (and mice  were obtained from matings between MRL/lpr and MRL/lpr mice in our colony. Age-matched animals of both genders were used in experiments. Isolation of T and B cells and T cell stimulations T and/or B cells were isolated from mouse spleens by softly homogenizing the organ in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), lysing reddish blood cells (Lonza, Basel, Switzerland) and purifying untouched lymphocyte populations by unfavorable selection using the Pan T cell and B cell Isolation Kits (Miltenyi, Cologne, Germany). Isolated cell populations were analyzed by circulation cytometry and were 90-95% real. The pan T cell kit uses B220 to remove B cells, which also removes the CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ (double unfavorable) T cell populace that accumulates in the MRL/lpr model as disease progresses. Flow cytometry analysis of our isolated T cell populations demonstrate that, on average, less than 6% of the T cells that were analyzed in our studies were double unfavorable T cells. For stimulations, T cells were plated at 1×106 cells per well on a 24-well plate in 1 ml RPMI1640 (Corning Cellgro, Corning, NY) supplemented with 10% LAMNB1 fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin answer (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). TCR-specific T cell stimulations were performed using anti-CD3/CD28 conjugated beads from your mouse T cell Activation/Growth kit (Miltenyi, Cologne, Germany) at a 1:1 bead:cell ratio RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides following the manufacturers instructions. T cell activation by Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (ion) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) were performed using a final concentration of 10 ng/ml PMA and 100 ng/ml ion. Adoptive transfer of MRL/lpr T cells and B cells to RAG-1-/- T and B cells were isolated as explained above.