1D and E). cells. The expression of SLea was only detected in trace quantities. Fucosyltransferase (FUT) is the key enzyme of the fucosylation step in the biosynthesis of sialyl-Lewis oligosaccharide antigens. Therefore, the present study investigated the expression of FUTs. It was found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of FUT7 were high in the MHCC97 HCC cell line compared with levels in normal liver cells. FUT6 was also expressed at a high level, although the difference was not statistically significant between MHCC97 cells and normal liver cells. No expression of FUT3 was detected. The results were consistent with the change insialyl-Lewis antigens. The effects of FUT7 small interfering (si)RNA transfection on the expression of FUT7, expression of SLex and MHCC97 cell proliferation were also examined. Following FUT7 siRNA transfection, the expression of FUT7 was markedly downregulated, as determined by western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. The results from flow cytometry showed that the synthesis of SLex was also inhibited, which was consistent with the downregulated expression of FUT7. MHCC97 cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited following FUT7 siRNA transfection, which was correlated with suppression of the S-phase in cell cycle progression. By using inhibitors of various signaling pathways, it was found that the knockdown of FUT7 inhibited the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by inhibiting the translocation and phosphorylation of PLC. In conclusion, the results suggested that FUT7 has animportant functional role in human HCC cell proliferation by controlling cell cycle progression via the PLC/extracellular BIBF0775 signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The inhibition of SLex and FUT7 siRNA transfection may provide a novel therapeutic methodology to treat tumors that express SLex glycoconjugates. forward 5-CAT TTC TGC TGC CTC AGG-3 and reverse 5-GGG CAA GTC AGG CAA CTC-3; human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), forward 5-GAA GGT GAA GGT CGG AGT C-3 and reverse 5-GAA GAT GGT GAT GGG ATT TC-3. The relative mRNA expression levels of FUT7 and FUT6 were normalized to the endogenous mRNA expression of GAPDH. Western blot analysis RIPA buffer (Sigma; EMD Millipore) with protease inhibitor (Sigma; EMD Millipore) was used to lyse cells (26). The BIBF0775 protein was collected, and a BCA Pierce Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) was used for the quantification of protein concentration. Subsequently, 50 em /em g of protein from each sample was denatured and resolved on a 10% SDS-PAGE gradient gel (EMD Millipore), and then electro-blotted onto a PVDF nitrocellulose membrane (EMD BIBF0775 Millipore). The PVDF membranes were then incubated with 5% non-fat milk for 1 h at room temperature, and then incubated with anti-FUT7 (1:1,000, cat. no. MAB64091), anti-PLC1 (1:500, cat. no. MAB8137) and anti-phosphorylated PLC1 (1:500, cat. no. MAB74541) which were purchased from Bio-Techne China (Shanghai, China), anti-FUT6 (1:1,000, cat. no. NBP1-57936; Novus Biologicals, LLC, Littleton, CO, USA), or anti–actin antibody (1:1,000, cat. no. MAB8929; Bio-Techne China) at 4C overnight. Following washing with TBST, the membrane was incubated with HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies (1:3,000, cat. no. HAF008; Bio-Techne China) for 1.5 h at room temperature. Finally, the signals were developed by enhanced chemiluminescence (Pierce, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.). Images of the results were captured and the images were scanned. The optical density of each protein band was quantified by a scanning densitometer and Quantity One software, version 4.4.1 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, CA, USA). Each lane of protein band density was normalized with corresponding -actin density. The cytosolic protein was isolated from particulate- conjugated protein using a digitonin separation method (29). The cells were collected and resuspended in 1 ml saline solution (1 mM EDTA, 150 mMNaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 2 mM EGTA, 1 em /em g/ml aprotinin, 10 em /em g/ml leupeptin, and 100 em /em g/ml digitonin) with occasional agitation for 10 min. The cells were then centrifuged at 13,000 g for 5 min at 4C and the resulting supernatant contained the cytosolic proteins. The cell pellet was dissolved in 1 ml lysis buffer (pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM NEK3 PBS, 1% Triton X-100, 2 mM EGTA, 1 mM PMSF, 0.1% SDS, 1 em /em g/ml aprotinin, and 10 em /em g/ml leupeptin) and contained the membrane protein (particulate-conjugated proteins). Subsequently, 80 em /em g of protein was separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto a PVDF membrane. The expression levels of PLC1 and phosphorylated PLC1 were detected by western blot analysis, as described above. Knockdown of FUT7 in MHCC97 cells by RNAi The expression of FUT7 in MHCC97 cells was silenced using specific siRNAs (Silencer siRNA transfection, Ambion, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.). Scramble.
Removal of T cells by various methods in different lupus prone mouse models including the MRL/lpr model results in decreased IgG production, decreased nephritis and increased/prolonged survival [31C35]. exhibited significantly decreased TCR-specific activation during early disease compared to T cells. Moreover, the T cells expressed significantly less neuraminidase 1 (T cells. FLI1 dose-dependently activated the promoter in mouse and human T cell lines. Together, our results suggest reducing FLI1 in lupus decreases the pathogenicity of T cells by decreasing TCR-specific activation and IL-4 production in part through the modulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Reducing the expression of FLI1 or targeting the glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway in lupus may serve as a therapeutic approach to treating lupus. Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by widespread inflammation, autoantibody production, and immune complex deposition. SLE affects nearly every organ system in the body. The underlying cause of SLE is RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides not known but abnormalities in both B and T cells are thought to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance, production of autoantibodies, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidneys and other target tissues. In SLE, B cells demonstrate deregulated cell signaling leading to increased B cell activation and disturbed B cell homeostasis [1C3]. T cells in SLE show aberrant cell signaling, altered gene expression and cytokine production, and increased infiltration into tissues (Examined in ). Efforts to improve SLE treatment therapies are ongoing but are limited by the lack of understanding of SLE pathogenesis and the specific alterations that occur in the cell types involved. Friend leukemia computer virus integration 1 (FLI1), an ETS family transcription factor, plays a role in SLE disease progression as exhibited in two different lupus mouse models [5,6]. FLI1 is required for embryogenesis and is expressed in the adult thymus, heart, muscle mass, spleen, lung, and ovary . In the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides immune system, FLI1 is usually expressed in immature and mature B cells and throughout T cell development [8C12]. Global overexpression of FLI1 in normally healthy mice resulted in development of a lupus-like kidney disease and growth of autoreactive T cells , suggesting a role for FLI1 in lupus disease development/progression. Genetic reduction of FLI1 expression by 50% (T cells from MRL/lpr mice decreases immunoglobulin production by co-transferred or MRL/lpr B cells. We present data that these effects may be due in part to decreased TCR-specific activation, decreased IL-4 production and altered glycosphingolipid metabolism in the T cells. These novel observations provide important mechanistic insight into the impact of FLI1 levels on RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides lupus T cell function and progression of disease. Materials and Methods Ethics statement and mouse strains All animal experiments and methods of euthanasia were approved by the Ralph H. Johnson VAMC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Mice were housed and managed under pathogen-free conditions at the Ralph H. Johnson RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides VAMC Animal Care Facility (Charleston, SC). B6.129S7-Rag1 (and mice  were obtained from matings between MRL/lpr and MRL/lpr mice in our colony. Age-matched animals of both genders were used in experiments. Isolation of T and B cells and T cell stimulations T and/or B cells were isolated from mouse spleens by softly homogenizing the organ in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), lysing reddish blood cells (Lonza, Basel, Switzerland) and purifying untouched lymphocyte populations by unfavorable selection using the Pan T cell and B cell Isolation Kits (Miltenyi, Cologne, Germany). Isolated cell populations were analyzed by circulation cytometry and were 90-95% real. The pan T cell kit uses B220 to remove B cells, which also removes the CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ (double unfavorable) T cell populace that accumulates in the MRL/lpr model as disease progresses. Flow cytometry analysis of our isolated T cell populations demonstrate that, on average, less than 6% of the T cells that were analyzed in our studies were double unfavorable T cells. For stimulations, T cells were plated at 1×106 cells per well on a 24-well plate in 1 ml RPMI1640 (Corning Cellgro, Corning, NY) supplemented with 10% LAMNB1 fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin answer (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). TCR-specific T cell stimulations were performed using anti-CD3/CD28 conjugated beads from your mouse T cell Activation/Growth kit (Miltenyi, Cologne, Germany) at a 1:1 bead:cell ratio RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) Peptides following the manufacturers instructions. T cell activation by Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (ion) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) were performed using a final concentration of 10 ng/ml PMA and 100 ng/ml ion. Adoptive transfer of MRL/lpr T cells and B cells to RAG-1-/- T and B cells were isolated as explained above.