The frequency of thyroid autoantibody positivity in children with T1DM varies significantly in different populations. of anti-GAD antibodies was 75.5 % in T1DM and 29.3% in T2DM. Anti -islet antibodies (Ab) were recognized in 53.4% of T1DM and 29.4% of T2DM. Anti-insulin Ab were recognized in 40.4% of T1DM and 58.3% of T2DM. The three antibodies collectively were recognized in 18. 4 % of T1DM and none of T2DM. At demonstration, hypothyroidism (Feet4 11.5 pmol/L) was detected in 10.6% of T1DM and 10% of T2DM. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 3.5% of Mouse monoclonal to CK17 T1DM and 8% of T2DM. Large anti TPO was recognized in 27.2% of T1DM and 34.6% of T2DM. Large TPO with normal thyroid function were found in 22.7% of T1DM and 23.1% of T2DM. ATT IgA was high in 5% of T1DM and 8.7% of Nicergoline T2DM whereas ATT IgG was high in 4.4 % of T1DM and not detected in any patient with T2DM. Mucosal biopsy proved celiac disease in 9 out of 12 individuals (75%) with positive ATT IgA and IgG antibodies. em Conclusions: /em Qatar has a relatively high incidence of T1DM compared to incidences reported worldwide. We statement a high prevalence of connected autoimmune abnormalities in our individuals with T1DM and T2DM. These data Nicergoline strengthen the discussion for routine testing of all children and adolescents with T1DM and T2DM for additional autoimmune disorders, particularly the thyroid gland. (www.actabiomedica.it) strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, children, adolescents, autoimmune diseases, Qatar Intro Diabetes is the most common chronic metabolic disease diagnosed in children and adolescents. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is definitely associated with the autoimmune process of pancreatic -cell damage, which leads to complete insulin deficiency and organ damage. Complex relationships between environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically predisposed individuals. The T1DM-inducing autoimmune process can also impact additional organs, resulting in development of additional autoimmune diseases in the patient. The most common T1DM comorbidities include autoimmune thyroid diseases and celiac disease (1-6). Autoimmune thyroid disease is definitely well recognized in children and adolescents with T1DM with difference prevalence rates and leading to subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism. However, the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity differs substantially between 3 and 50% in different countries (1-7). In adults, thyroid diseases occur more common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than expected. In a large cohort study, 27.3% of T2DM individuals experienced a thyroid disorder with more women being affected. However, the prevalence of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents with T2DM has not fully evaluated (8-10). The incidence of T1DM and T2DM has shown a rise in Qatar and worldwide. Generally, most instances of diabetes mellitus (DM) are classified as either type 1 DM Nicergoline or type 2 DM based on their pathophysiologic features. However, there is a notable increase in the incidence of a new expression of the disease in children and adolescents, with the characteristics of a mixture of the two types of diabetes and referred to as double diabetes. Insulin resistance and obesity, together with the presence of markers of pancreatic autoimmunity – namely, autoantibodies to islet cell antigens – typically define this condition (5). This cross form of diabetes appears to be increasing and thus there has been eager attention among experts about this unclear condition (11-14). In Qatar, the prevalence of this form of diabetes has not yet been assessed. Aim of the Study The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies and thyroid dysfunctions in a large cohort of children with T1DM and T2DM going to the Diabetes Centre of Hamad General Hospital (HMC), Doha Nicergoline (Qatar). Study design and methods We determined inside a retrospective cross-sectional study the prevalence of -cell autoimmunity [anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies (Ab), anti-islet cell Ab (ICA) and anti-insulin Ab (IAA)], thyroid function (Free thyroxine: Feet4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone: TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase Ab (TPO) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (ATT) inside a cohort of children and adolescent (aged 6 weeks- 16 years) with T1DM (n: 431) and T2DM (n: 59) checked at their 1st demonstration at Pediatric Diabetes Center of HMC, Doha, (Qatar) from January 2012 to December 2016. All Nicergoline sera were analyzed in HMC Central Lab. Children and adolescents with T2DM were all obese or obese, had acanthosis.